Tag Archives: Health & Fitness

What factors may influence a client’s ability to recover from injury?

An injury can be described as harm or hurt inflicted on a part of the body. An injury is a specific condition with a specific pathology. Dysfunction cannot be so easily identified and can be described as a non-pathological impairment or abnormality in soft tissue function.

A number of factors can affect a person’s likelihood of experiencing an injury or dysfunction. These include:



-Body composition




-Activity levels

-Sporting participation Read More

How does the ageing process affect the musculoskeletal?

The ageing process will affect us all, at different types in life and through different severities.  Let’s assess how the aging process affects our skeletal and neuromuscular anatomy.

Skeletal Changes Read More

What are the different type of joint-end feels?

There are multiple types of joint end-feels all of which are different for each individual!

Bone on Bone

When the end of range is encountered, the SMT will feel the bone on bone contact as the articular surfaces meet. This end-feel will be hard and abrupt.

If the SMT feels any grating, grinding or juddering towards the end of this range or if the ROM is limited, it is likely that this is abnormal. If the ROM is appropriate and the hard sensation is clean (e.g. when reaching the end of range during elbow extension), it is likely this end-feel is normal. Read More

What are the most common medical conditions associated with old age?

An older adult is referred to as an individual over the age of 65. The effects of ageing are something which cannot be stopped or put on hold, however the rate in which individuals age is completely different. With this in mind older adults may encounter medical conditions at different times.

There are a multitude of possible medical conditions which are more commonly associated with older individuals. Let’s look at the top 3 along with their signs and symptoms.

-Osteoporosis – This is a disease characterised by low bone mass and deterioration of bone tissue leading to bone fragility and increased risk of fracture of break. The main signs of symptoms of such disease is through the decreased movement in joints which causes pain and discomfort for the individual. This results in a lower ability to develop power and momentum. This is due to the loss of fast twitch fibres Read More

What role does water play in exercising and recovery?

It is essential to ensure you are constantly hydrated for the health and wellbeing of the human body.

Water is essential for providing the optimal function of:






-Body temperature regulation

Water plays a significant part in the performance of individuals. When an individual exercise, they lose fluids from sweating and breathing out water vapor. The harder and longer the exercise and the hotter the environment, the more fluid is lost. If the fluid is not replaced quickly, dehydration occurs which has an adverse effect on exercise performance. Read More

What is the role of each macronutrient in regards to generating energy?

Each macronutrient provides a different role in assisting the body to generate energy for exercise. The 3 main macronutrients are;





Fat is a major energy source during lower intensity workouts for the body. During digestion fat is broken down and becomes fatty acids, these acids area actually considered to be ‘good fats’. Fatty acids are highly soluble and can be used for energy by most cell types. However, these fatty acids can only be created with the help of oxygen therefore the exercise is most likely to have to be aerobic. Read More

Ghost Lifestyle | Size review

Ghost Lifestyle really are trying to ‘Be Seen’ within the UK! (pardon the terrible pun). They are aiming to transform the supplement industry, creating new designs flavours and even products. They are stopping at nothing to change the direction of a stagnant industry.

Ghost is more than a brand to its 3 creators, it’s their lifestyle.  They live and breathe it, creating new unbeatable products, ensuring nothing is ever the same and to get where they are currently they’ve given up, a lot. Read More

Ghost Lifestyle | Pre-workout Review

Ghost Lifestyle are the self-proclaimed ‘Worlds first lifestyle sports nutrition brand’ and frankly we couldn’t agree more! Their mantra of ‘Be seen’ provides an aspect of having their ‘legends’ (fans) come out from the dark and be heard because it’s their time.

Ghost Lifestyle have primarily been a US company for the last few years since their creation. However, this year they’ve attempted to transform and embed their “Be Seen” mantra into that of the UK and Ireland. Read More

Effects of Resistance Training on Joints

Resistance training produces significant improvements, such as increases in bone density and tendon and ligament strength and stiffness, resulting in improved joint function and reduced injury potential (Whiting and Zernicke 2008).

All joint components respond positively to increased mechanical stimuli and force loading as long as the forces do not exceed the individuals tissues functional limits (Farrell et al. 2011).

Normal adult bone is in a state of homeostasis that is maintained by balanced activity between osteoclasts (which break down). Repetitive bone loading and osteoblasts (which produce new bone). Repetitive bone loading as seen in resistance training, has been shown to increase the activity of osteoblasts, particularly at points of stress, leading to increased bone strength, density and calcium retention. The primary location of osteoblast activity is on the outside of the bones, in the periosteum; the osteoclast activity occurs on the inside surface of the trabecular bone. This pattern of change allows bone to adapt to the imposed demands without losing the relative structure (i.e. diameter of the hollow centre to the total bone diameter) whilst increasing girth, stiffness and strength (Watkins 2010). Note that during activity, particularly in sport, the demands experienced by the body are often not symmetrical. For example, Nazarian and colleagues (2010) investigated the effect of regular participation in football on the bone mineral density of the legs. Their findings indicated that the bones in players’ non-dominant legs had significantly higher bone mineral densities than those of their dominant legs. Read More

Monitoring and managing the client’s lifestyle

A recent trend in technology is lifestyle monitoring and management devices.

One common gadget is an armband or wristband that is capable of monitoring steps (pedometer), heart rate (heart rate monitor), body temperature (thermometer), sitting time (inactivity timer), light exposure (circadian rhythm monitor) and calculations of caloric expenditure. These devices can often link to software applications that analyse the collected data and offer encouraging feedback or healthy lifestyle advice.

Smartphones and tablets also have a wide range of applications that monitor lifestyle status and lifestyle progression. They often provide encouraging feedback, healthy advice and sometimes comparisons and and competitions with a local regional or global community of users (e.g., How do I rank among other users regarding the increase in daily number of steps?). This type of game-like feedback is highly motivating for some, and may be an important tool for a personal trainer. Personal trainers can also find software applications to monitor multisport, including walking, running and cycling, and to allow a client to engage in challenges that can help to boost their motivation, such as running a 10k personal record or running a set a set distance in a month. Some applications even propose to replace the distance in a month. Some applications even propose to replace the personal trainer, claiming to make fitness fun and help people stay motivated. These can be an easy way for clients to keep a personal trainer in their pocket. This may work with a small cluster of clients with an enormous drive of motivation and an unusually high level of autonomy (e.g., for personal trainers themselves!). For the vast majority of clients, though, the best and most sustainable option is to rely on a personal trainers help in designing an individualised and optimised training programme that is adjusted to their particular needs. Read More